Seeing hanging full-weight bunches on luxurious green bushes of grapes, almost every gardener wants not only to enjoy the amazing taste of the berry, but also to grow this miracle himself. This is quite within the power of even an inexperienced winegrower.
A garden bush of grapes is a branched vine with lignified, but flexible, stems that stretch towards the sun.
These many-meter branches in the spring give young shoots, called vines, on which clusters of sun-soaked amber, ruby and black berries are formed. It is noteworthy that it is the young shoots that bear fruit.
Over the summer, their growth is about 3 meters, so the formation of a bush is an urgent task for a gardener.
With a competent approach to this operation and good care, a three-year-old bush gives a full harvest.
The pruning technology assumes in the fall to leave no more than 5 buds on the side branches on the bush, and in the spring only the lower and upper young shoots are preserved on them. All the rest are removed, otherwise the bush will thicken, and the berries will be small and inconspicuous.
The grapes are not particularly picky about the growing soil, and vineyards are broken even in wetlands, excluding only salted ones for use.
It is important to choose the right place when breaking down, because a rich harvest is removed from the sunny southern and southeastern slopes.
Low-lying areas should be avoided, as there is a high probability of fog and cold air masses.
Everything you need for a vine:
- good ventilation between rows of grape bushes;
- maximum illumination;
- good heating of the soil.
Interesting features of grape pruning in the fall.
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The vine, like all representatives of the plant world, has its own irrigation rhythm. It directly depends on soil moisture and the amount of precipitation.
As a rule, sandy soil assumes its frequency of 7-10 days, and clay and black soil - about 14 days.
Together with watering, it is advisable to carry out fertilizing with nitrogenous, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, they are applied three times over the summer.
Mineral fertilizers are necessary for the development and fruiting of plants, but the soil also requires care: structuring and restoration of the biocenosis.
The introduction of organic matter can help in this: humus, bird droppings, peat or compost.
Organic matter of animal origin, such as manure, is applied exclusively in a rotted state.
General procedures are also mandatory in the care of the vine: thorough weeding, systematic loosening and timely treatment with agents for combating diseases and pests.
It is important to cut off unnecessary shoots on time to get the expected harvest, because only the two that were left in the spring should develop on the bush.
This is done when the length of the shoots reaches 2-3 cm. By the autumn season, the stem has young fruiting shoots about 7 mm thick. Pruning at this time of the year performs two functions: the further stage of the design of the bush and its preparation for wintering.
The absence of a trunk in a vineyard liana - a rigid skeleton of plants - makes it necessary to use artificially created frames or the device of trellises of various options.
When using the second option, the spring garter leads to a strong bend of the vine in the area of the first bud for the formation of a powerful shoot in this place - an arrow. He will become a fruiting vine next year.
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Vine wintering rules
Usually at the end of October in areas where winter brings snow and frost, work begins to prepare the grapes for this harsh period. Having abundantly watered the soil under the bush, it is covered with sawdust, needles, and some gardeners use the land for this.
The use of such natural warming agents requires additional waterproofing. But here there is a real danger from rodents, this must be remembered. Vines of more delicate grape varieties are tied in bunches, laid in grooves and only then insulated.
They also scrupulously carry out work on the disclosure of grapes after the end of the winter period. First, the insulation is removed, the bunches of vines are lifted from the ground and from the trenches, after which they are shaken off. Then they are hung on a trellis and dried, while carrying out preventive treatment of the land and the vines themselves.
It is better to open the grapes in the evening or in cloudy weather to prevent overheating and drying out. And the most important thing in this process is to prevent damage to swollen buds and young shoots by spring frosts.
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