"The flower is the sun"... This is how the name of the herbaceous plant of the Astrov family is translated from Greek.
Chrysanthemum is in high demand. Perennial and annual unpretentious plants grow well in open areas.
In recent years, gardeners prefer to set aside greenhouse beds for chrysanthemums.
Also on our website you can see information about the features of growing roses and tulips in a greenhouse.
Why in a greenhouse?
- Only indoors is it possible achieve almost year-round flowering.
- In the greenhouse, chrysanthemums are protected from natural enemies: snails, caterpillars. In an open flower bed, one caterpillar is capable of destroying all the buds from the bush during the night.
- The quality and duration of chrysanthemum flowering depends on the length of daylight hours. In a greenhouse, lighting is easy to adjust.
- Large-flowered cut species are sensitive to drops in temperature and humidity. It is possible to get rare varieties in the greenhouse.
How to equip a greenhouse?
If chrysanthemums are planned to be grown during the warm season (spring - autumn), any greenhouse with a film coating will do. Enough take care of ventilation and abundant watering... For year-round cultivation, you will need a stationary greenhouse with a strong frame and high-quality covering material (for example, made of polycarbonate). We'll have to adjust the heating system and additional lighting.
More than one hundred and fifty species of chrysanthemums are known, selection work is ongoing. Better to choose zoned varietiesresistant to temperature extremes and diseases, with a medium to late flowering period.
In greenhouses, Indian chrysanthemums (a large species group with large flowers) and Korean (with small flowers of various shapes and colors) bloom well. Large-flowered chrysanthemums have a tall, strong stem, decorative inflorescences up to 18 cm in diameter. Reach a height of 80 cm.
Recognized greenhouse varieties:
- Princess Anne;
- "The festival";
Small-flowered chrysanthemums grow in a bush reaching a height of 40 - 70 cm. They are less whimsical than single large-flowered varieties. Bloom for a long time.
For indoor cultivation varieties are suitable:
Chrysanthemums are propagated by seeds, cuttings and dividing the bush.
Growing chrysanthemums from seeds.
The method is painstaking and not always giving the expected result.
There are two ways to get a complete plant:
- Plant the seeds in open ground in spring, when the threat of late frosts has passed.
- Grow seedlings from seeds.
Pits are made in the garden at a distance of 20 cm from each other, spill them with warm water... 2-3 seeds are dipped into the resulting slurry, sprinkled with earth.
Cover from above with a film until shoots appear. The first shoots should be watered with any liquid fertilizer and gently loosen the soil.
Do not cover with foil... When the seedlings grow up to 10 cm, one strong shoot is left, the rest are removed.
With this method of cultivation, chrysanthemums will begin to bloom not earlier than autumn.
This will require shallow boxes with a drainage system (put expanded clay on the bottom or take containers with a lattice bottom). Pour a small layer of soil (you can buy ready-made soil), spread the seeds on top, lightly press to the ground (perennial varieties) or sprinkle with a thin layer (annuals).
Spray with warm water cover with foil until shoots appear... Make sure that the ground does not dry out. The temperature in the room should not be lower than 23 degrees. Seedlings will appear in two to two and a half weeks. You cannot remove the film right away... Plants are opened gradually. At first, they are allowed to "breathe the air" for no more than an hour, increasing the airing time every day.
In the video, information on growing chrysanthemums from seeds:
Seedlings must be thinned out at the stage of 3-4 true leaves. Too elongated or remove weak plants... It is advisable to lower the room temperature to 16 - 18 degrees and provide backlighting with an LED lamp. Mandatory feeding mineral fertilizers.
When grown from seeds, the resulting chrysanthemum species can differ significantly from the original parental form.
Propagation by cuttings
The best way to grow chrysanthemums is the "controlled bloom" technology. Allows you to plan the planting time, depending on the desired time of receiving flowers. For cuttings, shoots are taken from the main root (mother liquor). A leaf with a bud is selected and a cut is made above it. Cuttings are cut into a length of seven centimeters, the end is moistened with a growth biostimulator (Kornevin, Etamon).
Additional information in the video about the propagation of chrysanthemums by cuttings:
You can dip the cuttings in a solution of warm water with honey for four hours (half a teaspoon for 0.5 liters of oxen). A layer of well-moistened soil is placed in the box, two to three centimeters of river sand are poured on top. Need to know! Pre-calcine the sand in order to destroy pathogens.
The cuttings are stuck into the sand at an angle of 45 degrees. It should not be hot in the room, keep the soil constantly moist... Transplant into a greenhouse when the cuttings take root. This will happen in three weeks.
By cuttings, seedlings are grown from a bouquet.
- Remove leaves and buds from the plant.
- Cut off the top, leaving 8-10 cm of the plant. Place the cutting in water.
- Wait for the roots to appear, plant in the greenhouse.
Reproduction by dividing the bush.
The lightest, but unproductive way... Applied in early spring, before the beginning of the growing season. The bush is dug up, freed from a clod of earth. Divide it into several parts with a knife without damaging the roots. In each leave three strong shoots... The stiff and rotten are removed. After dividing, chrysanthemums are planted in the ground and watered abundantly.
Useful tips in the video on the reproduction of chrysanthemums by dividing the bush:
How to grow chrysanthemums in a greenhouse? Chrysanthemums are unpretentious, are ready to forgive a number of mistakes to novice growers. Simple rules will allow you to get a healthy, strong, regularly flowering plant.
Chrysanthemums demanding on soil acidity... The indicator should be 6.5 - 7 pH (neutral) or slightly alkaline (7.5 - 8 pH). In a greenhouse, a bed for chrysanthemums is prepared from garden soil and turf, with the addition of river sand and humus (one bucket per square meter).
The increased acidity is drowned out by ash, lime, dolomite flour. Application of mineral fertilizers is recommended. Be sure to treat the soil from pests: spill with boiling water or copper sulfate solution.
Can be carried out in the greenhouse at any time of the year. Proceed from the calculation that from the time of planting the cuttings to obtaining a full-fledged flower at least four months will pass.
If a bouquet of chrysanthemums is needed for the New Year holidays, the cuttings are planted in the last days of August. The cuttings planted on October 10 - 15 will turn into blooming chrysanthemums by March 8.
Favorable time for planting is early morning or evening. Cuttings of bush varieties are planted at a distance of 40 cm from each other. It is enough to leave 20 cm between single-stem varieties. The roots do not deeply deepen, they grow parallel to the ground.
- chrysanthemum moisture-loving plants... Watering should be abundant. Flowers prefer soft water. The ideal option is rain or melt. For softening, you can add 3 grams of ash to 1 liter;
- do not allow water to enter the leaves. Regular supply of moisture to the roots of chrysanthemums will provide drip irrigation system;
- loosening will slow down the process of soil dehydration;
- the humidity level in the greenhouse during the period of plant growth should be within 75%. When buds appear, the humidity is reduced to 65%. To increase the duration of flowering, watering is reduced to a minimum.
Temperature regime and light regime.
Chrysanthemum likes a lot of light and moderate temperatures... Rooted cuttings will develop rapidly at temperatures no lower than 18 degrees. During the period of bud formation, the temperature in the greenhouse is reduced to 12 degrees. An adult plant will withstand a cold snap to -3 degrees, but the buds will die.
The light mode is adjusted depending on phases of development of chrysanthemums:
- Growing cuttings need a long day of light (up to 18 hours). For the winter forcing of chrysanthemums, light intensity and spectral composition are important indicators. Provide a comfortable environment LED or sodium lamps will help.
- When the first buds appear, the day is shortened to 10 hours. In summer, black film is used for this.
- Large flowering chrysanthemums require complete darkness at night, otherwise they will not bloom.
- For the regular formation of shoots, maintain a night temperature of 16 - 20 degrees.
Important avoid dew on the leaves... This leads to plant disease.
Chrysanthemums need mineral fertilizers. At the first stage, nitrogen fertilizers are applied. They contribute to the growth of green mass and the strengthening of the root system. During the development of flower shoots and bud formation potash feedings are necessary... For long lush flowering, phosphorus fertilizers are applied.
Every seven to ten days they feed infusion of mullein or chicken droppings (1 liter for each plant). Prepare like this: pour a bucket of droppings (or two buckets of mullein) with water, leave for three days. Dilute a liter of infusion with ten liters of water.
Fertilizers are applied strictly at the root in the moistened soil. Contact with leaves and flowers will cause burns. An excess of fertilizer is more dangerous than a lack. Excessive feeding causes the oppression of chrysanthemums.
Diseases: prevention and treatment
Chrysanthemum hardy plantresistant to pests. Diseases are the result of improper care.
- high air temperature. Causes leaf burn. Chrysanthemums love the sun, but they do not tolerate heat above 25 degrees;
- violation of the irrigation regime. Excess moisture leads to root rot... With a lack of water, the leaves turn yellow, the plant sheds its buds;
- spider mite;
What to do?
Dilute a piece of laundry soap in 10 liters of warm water. Spray once every ten days... Pass the head of garlic through a meat grinder, leave for thirty minutes in a bucket of water (10 l), strain. Sprinkle chrysanthemums with garlic water. You can wipe off the leaves, but this is more time consuming.
It is necessary to process both diseased plants and healthy ones.
The main enemy of chrysanthemums - nematode. Blackened lower leaves indicate infection. Fighting is useless. Diseased plants must be burned. On our website, you can additionally familiarize yourself with the types of nematodes and how to deal with them.
Growing chrysanthemums in a greenhouse can bring a good income to the owner. In any case, these long-blooming bright, varied shapes and colors, plants will become a decoration of the garden.
General recommendations for growing chrysanthemums in the video: