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New Guinea Balsam is a very delicate flower. It amazes with its constant flowering. This herb is often grown on windowsills, and also as an ornamental plant in the garden, in the open field.
From this article you will learn in detail about this plant, read its description. See what this flower looks like in the photo.
We will also consider how home care is carried out, how to deal with diseases and pests. You will find information on what to do if the balsam does not bloom, we will describe the ways how it multiplies.
Botanical description and history of origin
New Guinea hybrids first appeared on the flower market in 1972. They were bred by crossing the Indonesian Hocker variety with other types of balsam. The homeland of New Guinea balsam is the subtropics and tropics of Africa, Asia and America.
Depending on the place of growth and variety, the flower grows from 30 to 50 cm. The root system is strong, grows well. The plant looks like a bush with many stems.
In oblong-oval pointed leaves:
- bright streaks;
- serrated edges;
- short petioles.
Flowers with curly petals can reach a size of 5-7 cm. Depending on the variety, they are one-color or two-color with patterns. On the top of the stems there is one or more buds. Flowering lasts several months, this is influenced by climatic conditions and the place of growth.
In place of the flower, a fruit is formed - an oblong box... Its outer part is divided by ribs. After the fruit is ripe when touched, it opens up, ejecting seeds. In nature, a flower reproduces in this way.
Description of appearance and features
At home, New Guinea balsam can bloom for 10 months. Among flower growers, this property makes the plant very popular.
New Guinea hybrids are powerful and meaty... They have strong shoots, bright asymmetrical flowers and very dense leaves. Of the numerous varieties of balsams, these stand out for the beauty of flowering and the richness of greenery.
The peculiarities of varietal New Guinea balsam include the fact that the plant sheds its leaves due to:
- lack of lighting;
- drying out the soil.
How the flower will bloom is influenced by the choice of the pot, as well as the systematic introduction and composition of fertilizers.
New Guinea hybrids are prized for their coloration.... Flowers come in different shades:
- fuchsia, etc.
Leaves, in addition to a bright dark green color, are bronze or with a yellowish enlightenment in the middle.
Further in the photo you can examine the plant and admire the beauty of its flowering.
In nature, there are more than 400 types of balsam, but in the Northern Hemisphere, the following varieties are widespread: Garden, Wild, Iron-Kosny or Ferruginous, Tom Samb, as well as Waller's balsam. Florists are very fond of planting terry and ampelous plant species - they will decorate any territory or apartment.
Can the plant be planted in the garden?
New Guinea Balsam is one of the easiest plants to care for., both on the windowsill in the apartment and in the garden. It is able to withstand drying out and waterlogging of the soil for a short time.
Important! It must be borne in mind that in this case, the decorativeness of the flower, the density of the leaves and the number of buds that form, suffer.
Lighting and location
Balsam New Guinea prefers soft diffused light... It should not be exposed to direct sunlight. The best location for the flower is the sills of windows facing west and east. In winter, when daylight hours get shorter, the plant needs additional lighting. Otherwise, its shoots will stretch out, and the leaves will begin to fall off.
The flower grows well in light, fertile soil. You can buy a ready-made substrate or prepare it yourself by mixing:
- Fertile soil.
- Leafy ground.
The self-prepared mixture must be disinfected.
Flower care at home
How to care for a flower?
For normal growth at home, room balsam New Guinea needs some care. The temperature should be 18 ° C ... 24 ° C... The flower has a negative effect:
- temperature below 10 ° С;
- frosty air;
Therefore, it should not be placed on the windowsill in the kitchen, because the windows there are often opened for ventilation.
The plant needs to be regularly watered abundantly, but only after the topsoil has dried. This will prevent rot from appearing. In winter, watering is reduced to twice a month., the water flowing into the sump should be discarded.
These plants are native to the tropics with high humidity, so they can shed buds and flowers in dry air.
Regular spraying will help to create optimal humidity in the room, with the exception of flowers and buds.
This procedure is especially necessary in extreme heat and with the onset of the heating season. Flower leaves can be wiped with a damp sponge, thereby they will be cleaned of the dust layer and will breathe freely.
Abundant flowering is impossible without top dressing. Twice a month, New Guinea balsam is fertilized with mineral compounds with potassium. This element contributes to the formation of flowers. There is no need to feed with pure nitrogen, thanks to which the green mass will actively grow, and the flowering will slow down.
Balsam New Guinea does not tolerate pruning... If you want the bushes to look thicker and more compact, then you can pin the tops of the shoots. Although the plant itself is able to form a magnificent shape. To create the appearance and shape of the bush, it is allowed to trim only the Harmony species.
Once every 2-3 years, the flower must be transplanted. This is done in the spring. You need to take a small pot, both in diameter and depth. In cramped conditions, New Guinea balsam will grow more magnificently. At the bottom, organize a drainage layer, for example, from expanded clay. The flower must be carefully transferred from pot to pot. Fill the resulting void with soil to such a level that the root collar rises 2 cm above it.
Common diseases and pests
In most cases, New Guinea balsam gets sick from improper care. This is evidenced by the external condition of its parts. When exposed to direct sunlight, yellow spots appear on the leaves. This means that the flower has received burns.
It so happens that when the heating is turned on, the balsam leaves begin:
- dry around the edges;
- fall off.
It is necessary to install special trays with water and expanded clay, or put a humidifier. If colorful leaves always turn pale, then this indicates a lack of nutrients. The introduction of complex fertilizers will help them become bright again.
To decay of the root system and stems of New Guinea balsam, and subsequently to fungal diseases, leads to:
- excessive watering;
- waterlogging of the soil;
- too damp air.
The flower can suffer from insect pests: aphids and spider mites. Contaminated New Guinea Balsam must be isolated. Treatment is carried out with special drugs. They cultivate the flower itself and the earth.
What if it doesn't bloom?
The reasons that New Guinea balsam does not bloom may be:
- Deficiency of nutrients in the soil.
- Insufficient lighting.
- Surplus fertilizers.
- Incorrect feeding, namely, excess nitrogen.
When eliminated, the flower will delight with lush flowering.
Under natural conditions, the reproduction of balsam occurs with the help of seeds. It is difficult to grow a flower in this way at home.
According to statistics, out of 10 seeds sown, only 5 germinate. It should also be borne in mind that young plants obtained from seeds develop slowly, the slightest reason can lead to their death.
First you need to prepare fertile soil on which to carefully spread the seeds. After that, sprinkle them with a small layer of earth. Then moisten using a spray bottle or a spray can.
To create a greenhouse effect, all this must be covered with a transparent film or glass. It is necessary to systematically open the container to ventilate and moisten the soil, preventing the earthen coma from drying out. The appearance of the first shoots can be expected in 1.5-2 weeks.
The most effective breeding method of New Guinea balsam is cuttings. To do this, below the node, you must cut off the stalk on which you want to remove the lower leaves. Plant it in prepared soil. It is necessary to place the cutting in a warm place where there is no draft and where direct sunlight does not penetrate. Roots are formed after 14 days.
In room conditions, New Guinea balsam lives for 4-5 years, then it must be updated. When grown outdoors, the plant becomes annual.
Balsam is a flower that, although it does not smell, stands out for its magnificent flowering. It is widely used in personal gardening. With the help of New Guinea balsam of different colors, landscape designers create picturesque and unique compositions.