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A good harvest of tomatoes is always the result of hard work and great diligence. From germination of seeds to harvesting, it is necessary to carry out a considerable number of activities, one of which is the regular provision of plants with additional nutrients.
What fertilizers do tomatoes like and what is the best way to feed the crop for fruitful cultivation in the ground, and what are the nuances of tomato agricultural technology? We will tell you this and much more in our article. You can also watch a useful video on this topic.
Attention: Top dressing is the application of mineral fertilizers during the formation, growth and development of plants. Top dressing is of a periodic nature and, with proper organization, contributes to a set of green mass in the plant, abundant flowering and fruiting, as well as successful wintering.
Fertilization is the replenishment of nutrients lost by the soil after the harvest.... Fertilization is recommended regularly, based on the calendar and soil needs. Proper fertilization helps to reduce labor costs, increase soil fertility and crop yields.
What needs to be brought into the ground when planting?
What fertilizers are recommended to be applied in the spring to the tomato hole when planting? The soil, well prepared since autumn, has already been saturated with useful microelements, but, nevertheless, a day before planting seedlings, it is necessary to add a non-concentrated solution of manganese and a yeast mixture in a proportion of 10 grams per 10 liters of water to the holes. The solution must be allowed to stand for a day. The dosage for each well is 200-220 ml. The yeast solution creates optimal conditions for the adaptation of bushes to a new habitat. Learn how to fertilize tomatoes using yeast here.
Potash fertilization is beneficial for the root system of tomatoes.... These include ash from burnt grass, straw or sunflower. The recipe is simple, each hole should have 10 grams of dry matter.
The rules for fertilizing and the scheme for feeding tomatoes are described in a separate article.
What is the best for seedlings?
Fertilizing tomatoes after germination must be carried out in order to get full strength plants that can resist attacks from pests and diseases and give good yields. The first introduction of nutrients should be carried out 10-12 days after the dive, further enrichment should be carried out every 10 days (what to fertilize the seedlings with before and after the dive is discussed in our material).
A composition suitable for these purposes is prepared by stirring a tablespoon of nitrophoska in 10 liters of water. A glass of finished fertilizer is distributed over two cups with plants.
We wrote about how to carry out the first feeding for tomato seedlings here, and about how to feed tomato sprouts so that the stems are thick and stable, read here.
During flowering and fruit setting
During this period, root feeding is carried out with a composition of:
- "Agricol-Vegeta" - 1 tbsp.
- Superphosphate - 1 tbsp.
- Potassium sulfate (or potassium chloride) - 1 tablespoon
- Water - 10 liters.
Tomatoes, during fruit setting and flowering, in the process of watering one bush, need 1 liter of liquid... A solution similar in composition and effectiveness can be obtained by diluting 1 tbsp. the drug "Signor Tomato" in ten liters of water. If you make the concentration of such a composition weaker, you can also carry out foliar feeding.
Types of substances with which it is recommended to fertilize the crop
What fertilizers you need to feed tomatoes when growing and planting is up to you, below is a list of existing fertilizers for tomatoes, with a detailed description from a to z.
Fertilizers obtained from substances of plant and animal origin are rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron and calcium. The introduction of organic fertilizers when growing tomatoes helps to strengthen the root system and stems, healthy foliage color, fruit enlargement and improvement of their taste.
Important: Organic fertilizer must be of high quality, that is, ripe and fully fermented, otherwise the introduction of improperly prepared fertilizer will contribute to the appearance of pests.
With added minerals
Simple mineral fertilizers for tomatoes can be:
- Nitrogen - are used for accelerated growth of leaves and shoots of the plant. They are especially effective at the stage of early growing season of tomatoes, for feeding seedlings, as well as for plants planted in the ground before flowering. Urea and ammonium silicate are the most popular one-component minerals. To prepare an active solution of 1 tbsp. the substances are dissolved in ten liters of water.
- Phosphoric - effective for growing and developing the root system of tomatoes. Simple phosphate fertilizers are superphosphate. It is poorly soluble in water, so the active solution must be prepared a day before use. To do this, dissolve one tablespoon of superphosphate in one liter of boiling water and, after a day, mix this solution with ten liters of water.
- Potash - contribute to the development of the root system of tomatoes, increase the immunity of plants, and also help to improve the taste of a ripe vegetable. Fertilizer is applied at various stages of crop cultivation, but it should be borne in mind that it is not recommended to use potassium salts containing chlorine, since it negatively affects the growth of tomatoes. Potassium sulfate is optimal for tomatoes. Top dressing based on it is prepared by dissolving 40 grams of dry matter in 10 liters of water.
In complex mineral fertilizers, the basic and additional substances are balanced, which makes it possible not to independently calculate the proportions for the preparation of top dressing. Efficiency and ease of use are the main criteria in favor of choosing this particular type of dressing.
Using complex fertilizer for tomatoes, you can influence soil fertility and increase productivity.
Also, a tomato can be fertilized with folk remedies, information about which you will find in a separate material.
The nuances of making, depending on where and how tomatoes are grown
In the greenhouse
When growing tomatoes in greenhouses, fertilizer is applied three times per season.:
- Two weeks after picking seedlings under cover. To do this, 200 g of ammonium nitrate, 500 g of double superphosphate and 100 g of potassium are diluted in 100 liters of water.
- The second dressing is poured into the root at the stage of ovary formation. Also, 100 l is taken 800 g of superphosphate and 300 g of potassium nitrate.
- The last feeding is during fruiting. The same displacement will require 400 grams of double superphosphate and 400 grams of potassium nitrate.
You can also use ready-made complex fertilizers.
Read about what and how to feed tomatoes in the greenhouse here.
On the balcony
Even for the most productive varieties of tomatoes growing at home on the balcony, additional feeding is needed.... To do this, you can use both organic fertilizers, for example, chicken manure or mullein dissolved in water, in a ratio of 1: 5, as well as the more popular mineral fertilizers.
30 g of the finished mixture is dissolved in 10 liters of water. This amount of fertilizer is quite enough for watering a fairly large balcony garden and the first feeding of indoor tomatoes should be carried out a week after planting seedlings on the balcony. In the future, top dressing should be applied every 10-12 days.
In the open field
In the open field, the first root fertilization should be carried out only 10 days after planting... Until this time, tomatoes take root and feed on substances embedded in the soil at the stage of its preparation. This period is stressful for plants, so they slow down or even stop their growth.
After the first feeding, subsequent nutrient applications are carried out according to the schedule once every two to three weeks. For the entire growing season, tomatoes should receive 3-4 feeding. If the soil is poor and depleted, the amount of dressing can be increased.
Foliar dressing, which is spraying plants with nutrients, can be carried out regularly at intervals of two to three weeks. They should not coincide in time with root fertilization. If symptoms of a lack of any particular element appear, it is permissible to add it out of order on the sheet.... This method will make it possible to compensate for the lack of a trace element in the shortest possible time.
What ready-made products can you buy?
- Ammophos, nitroammophos, diammophos (contain nitrogen and phosphorus).
- Potassium nitrate (contains nitrogen and potassium).
- Calcium nitrate (contains nitrogen and calcium).
- Magnesium sulfate (in the composition of magnesium and sulfur).
- Potassium monophosphate (phosphorus-potassium fertilizer).
- Nitrophoska, nitroammofoska.
- Kemira Universal 2, Kemira Lux.
- Station wagon.
- Tomato crystal.
There are other ready-made dressings for tomato seedlings, about the most popular of them, such as "Athlete", "Garden World" and others, you can read in this article, and here you will learn about such means as "Baby", "Red giant "," Mage boron "and others.
- Watering is rare, but abundant.
- In rainy weather, watering should be stopped.
- During flowering, tomatoes must be spud.
- At the final stage of the growth process, when the result of feeding is already manifested in the form of heavy brushes with tomatoes, they must be tied up.
Unique way of watering
Tomato seedlings are planted in a square-nesting method around one irrigation pit with a capacity of 20 liters... One pit serves the needs of four bushes. Ash is laid at the bottom, if there is no ash, then superphosphate, potassium sulfate.
Further, the fertilizer is covered with finely mown grass so that the pit is filled with a slide and poured with a bucket of warm water. Further watering is also done through the pit.
Irrigation solutions and the procedure for spraying tomatoes:
- The first time - 6-10 drops of iodine per 10 liters of water. We talked about how to use iodine for feeding tomatoes here.
- The second time - a solution of potassium permanganate, the color of red (not very dark) wine.
- The third time - 2 tablespoons of baking soda per 10 liters of water Watering and spraying every 7-8 days.
You can also water tomatoes with other solutions. You can read about how to feed seedlings using hydrogen peroxide here, and how to do it using ammonia is described here.
Connection with peppers and cucumbers
The joint cultivation of tomatoes and sweet peppers, including at home, is permissible and does not cause antagonism, since the conditions for the growth of crops are the same, but it is better to differentiate tomatoes and cucumbers for the following number of reasons:
- Tomatoes and peppers need moderate warmth and dryness. Cucumbers, on the other hand, love high humidity.
- At high humidity, tomatoes are affected by fungal infections, dryness for a cucumber threatens the appearance of a spider mite.
- Frequent watering is vital for cucumbers; watering tomatoes and peppers is often not recommended.
Competent selection of fertilizers will allow you to get an excellent harvest of tomatoes (how to choose the best fertilizer for tomatoes is written here). Observing simple recommendations on the composition of nutrient solutions and adhering to the schedule of their introduction, you can grow healthy, abundantly fruiting plants on your site from year to year.