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Agricultural technology of radish: the secrets of growing root crops for a rich harvest


Radish is an amazing vegetable loved by many people. A beautiful fruit, juicy, with a delicate spicy taste, pleases in salads all year round.

Root vegetables are usually eaten, which have a diameter of 2.5 cm and are covered with thin skin painted in red, pink or white-pink.

It also accumulates a lot of nutrients: vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, trace elements, a complex of enzymes that help the body to properly assimilate proteins.

It helps us in the winter months, boosts immunity in the spring when the body is weakened. Let's talk about the agricultural technology of this vegetable crop.

Prerequisites for a good radish harvest

Knowing the rules of planting and the secrets of caring for a root crop in a greenhouse and in the open field, you can get a rich harvest of this delicious vegetable (is it possible to grow it at home?).

Radish, like any vegetable crop, has its own growing characteristics: it is not afraid of the cold, loves light, generous and regular watering, fertile loose soil, requires good feeding, does not tolerate thickened plantings, does not like heat and an arid climate.

Factors to consider when choosing seeds

In modern breeding, a huge number of varieties have been bred for different climatic zones., soils, cultivation methods (in a greenhouse or open field). In turn, they are divided into early ripening (ripening period 25-30 days), mid-ripening (30-35 days) and late (up to 45 days).

Characteristics of varieties bred for open ground

Consider how much radish of various varieties grows for open ground before ripening, what is its shape and taste, and the characteristics of cultivation.

Variety name, advantagesRipening termsRoot shape and color, taste, fruit weightFeatures of the
Early maturing varieties
French breakfast21-25 daysCylindrical, juicy taste with a hint of pungency and bitterness, 15-20 gr.Afraid of freezing, picky about light, in the shade gives abundant greenery and small fruit.
18 days (resistant to shooting)18 daysCylindrical, red, white pulp, dense, slightly sharp, 20-25 gr.
Heat18-27 daysRound, red with raspberry tinge, delicate, pleasant taste, 30 gr.
Duro Krasnodar (friendly return of the crop, resistant to cracking, shooting and flabbling)25 daysRound, firm flesh, mild taste.
Mid-season varieties
Alba (resistant to shooting and sagging)32-36 daysOval, white, with juicy, non-bitter pulp.Observance of crop rotation is necessary (do not plant after crucifers).
Autumn giant (stored for up to 5 months)30-35 daysWhite, elliptical, large up to 170 g, good taste.Demanding on the light.
Würzburg 59 (high yield, resistant to cracking, sagging, flowering, stored for a long time)25-35 daysRound, red, good taste without bitterness, 14-18 gr.Observance of crop rotation is necessary (do not plant after crucifers).
Late-ripening varieties
Ice icicle (long-term storage)40 daysIt looks like an icicle with a pointed shape 15-18 cm in length, the flesh is crispy, juicy, with a characteristic odor, slightly spicy.It should be planted in August for storage, tolerates autumn frosts well, is not a high-yielding variety.
Red giant (long-term storage, resistant to sagging and hollowness, high yield)35-50 daysCylindrical, red, white pulp, juicy, pleasant taste, little bitterness, 80-300 gr.Growing on an industrial scale.
Dungan 12/8 (high yield, long-term storage)48-55 daysRound, red, white flesh, juicy, crunchy with a weak spicy taste, 40-75 gr.Unpretentiousness, increased resistance to drought and high temperatures.

What kind of seeds to take for planting in a greenhouse?

In a greenhouse, radish lacks sunlight and not all varieties can grow in a suffocating microclimate, therefore, the choice of radish for growing in a greenhouse should be approached especially carefully: take into account resistance to arrowing, high humidity and fungal diseases, tolerance to darkened and shaded conditions.

Variety nameRipening termsRoot shape and color, taste, fruit weight
Child F1 (resistant to shooting)16 daysRound, red, large, 13-22 gr., Juicy, firm flesh without pungency.
Alex (resistant to shooting)16-18 daysRound, red, 20gr, great taste.
Helro- recommended only for greenhouses (resistant to shooting, very demanding on light, with additional lighting, the ripening time is reduced)22-24 daysRound, regular shape, red.
Silesia (resistant to shooting)24-28 daysCylindrical, bright red, the pulp is juicy, without bitterness.
The most productive varieties for greenhouses
Champion (yield 3.9 kg / m)20-30 daysRound, red, white pulp, juicy, no bitterness, 25 gr.
Soundboard (yield 3.8 kg / m)20-24 daysRound, red. 11-13 gr, white pulp, no bitterness.
Firstborn F1 (yield 3.5 kg / m)16-18 daysRound, red, 35 g., Juicy, sweet pulp.
Beauty (yield 2.5kg / m) (bears fruit well in low light)25 daysRound, red, white flesh without pungency.

How to grow radishes correctly: step by step instructions

Consider how to quickly grow a juicy large radish: how to correctly plant a root crop and how to care for it in the open field and in a greenhouse, based on what this plant loves.

Selection and preparation of seed

Decide on a radish planting site (in the ground or greenhouse) and ripening times. Depending on this, select varieties.

For an early and fast harvest, use early and ultra-early maturing radishes.

Seeds of selected varieties are better calibrated, leaving only those that are 2 mm in diameter and more.

Only large seeds will yield fast shoots and a good harvest! Soak them for 1-3 days to speed up germination. About whether it is necessary to process the seeds before planting and how to do it correctly, we wrote in another material.

Sowing dates

The timing of sowing a crop depends on the variety.:

  • So, ultra-early ripening radishes are sown either in autumn (in dug and fertilized soil, 2 weeks before serious frosts), or in early spring in prepared soil (late March, if snow has melted), in early or mid-April. You can learn more about when and how to plant radishes outdoors in spring in another article.
  • The second sowing should be done in late May - early June.
  • The third term is the beginning of July (there is a danger of shooting, since daylight hours are reduced). Why the radish is pulled out and goes to the arrow and what to do with it read here.
  • The fourth crop is in a polycarbonate greenhouse to provide warmth.

Landing in greenhouses is excluded. For the third time, it is better to sow those varieties that are well stored.

How to prepare the soil?

It is advisable to prepare the soil for radishes in the fall.:

  1. dig up;
  2. choose roots;
  3. deposit for 1 sq.m. 50 gr. superphosphate, 15 gr. potassium salt and half a bucket of humus.

It is advisable to calcify the soil in the fall, since radishes are susceptible to keel disease, like all cruciferous plants. If the preparation of the planting site is in the spring, do not make the most common mistake - do not apply fresh manure, otherwise the radish will turn out to be hollow. The soil should be loose, fertile... The crop rotation must also be observed, plant the radish after:

  • legumes;
  • tomato;
  • potatoes;
  • cucumbers.

You can learn about what kind of soil radishes love and how to make the land suitable for growing vegetables, you can find out in a separate article.

Landing rules

  • Optimum temperature for planting.

    Radish is a cold-resistant vegetable, so it can be sown in late March or early April under shelter. It germinates at a temperature of -1, -2 degrees, a comfortable temperature is + 15-16 degrees. Seedlings can withstand frosts down to -4, but they stop growing. Therefore, before the onset of constant heat (+ 15-17 degrees), it is better to keep the seedlings under a film. Learn about growing under film in this material.

    But this plant does not tolerate very high temperatures, so it is better to shade it in the heat (the optimum temperature is +22 degrees). Read more about the temperature for growing this vegetable here.

  • Organization of the correct landing pattern.

    The ideal sowing pattern can be considered 10 × 2 cm. Then the radish does not require thinning. Is it necessary to thin out the radishes if there is a thickening of the plantings, and how to do it correctly? In the cotyledonous leaf phase, plantings can be thinned out by leaving the plants 5 cm apart.

    Maybe then it is better to grow radish seedlings? Radish grown by seedlings yields 1-1.5 weeks earlier. Often gardeners ask: is it possible to dive a radish? You can plant seedlings as follows:

    1. Carefully remove the plants with two cotyledonous leaves from the moist soil. (It is convenient to make a dive with a wooden stick without damaging the spine);
    2. plant in a moistened trench with a depth of about the same as the length of the roots;
    3. then sprinkle with loose earth.

    The choice of the method of growing radishes always remains with the gardener, but remember that spot sowing according to the scheme is more productive, gives a friendly and beautiful harvest, albeit a little later. To reduce the laboriousness of the sowing process, you can purchase seeds on a tape or make your own seed on a narrow strip of toilet paper, which, when watering, then easily decomposes in the soil.

  • Sowing depth.

    For sowing, you need to make grooves no more than 1 cm deep, shed them, and after sowing, cover with loose soil.

  • Accounting for the degree of illumination.

    This vegetable loves light! This means that it must be planted in open ground as early as possible. To plant radishes, you need to choose the sunny side on the south side (preferably on a small hillock).

You can find all the details about planting radishes here.

Watering

Radish is picky about the moisture level of both soil and air. Daily watering during dry weather is the minimum condition for optimal radish development.

But also excess moisture has a bad effect on the quality of root crops... Therefore, it is necessary to observe both the weather conditions and the condition of the soil and, on the basis of observations, reduce or increase the amount and volume of irrigation.

We must not forget that during the formation of the root crop, watering of the root crop is especially needed. If your radish grows in a greenhouse, remember to ventilate it after watering. Find out how to properly water a radish here.

Top dressing

Feeding the plant should be done at the beginning of the formation of root crops with mineral fertilizers (for 10 liters of water - 1 tablespoon of nitrophoska), 10 days after that - with an infusion of nettle or manure. Radish is a "kaleed", therefore potash fertilizers are required for it, they need to be brought in during the ripening of the fruits, they will turn out to be even and bright red. Further care consists in loosening and weeding the beds. You can read what methods of feeding radishes exist in this article.

What are the ways to grow a root vegetable?

There are several ways to grow radishes: in greenhouses, outdoors, in cassettes, in hydroponic installations (how to grow radishes at home?).

  1. Cultivation in cassettes can be done in ready-made containers - cassettes or egg boxes with cut-out bottoms.

    The soil for such cassettes should be loose, fertile. One seed is planted in each cell, and the entire cassette is placed in a greenhouse, greenhouse or in a garden bed (it decomposes easily, it can serve as mulch). But for disinfection, the cassettes must be sprayed with vodka from a spray bottle or heated in the oven at a temperature of 100 degrees for 10-15 minutes.

  2. Growing in hydroponic plants.

    It is especially relevant for Central Russia, because in this way you can get a crop all year round. Radish turns out to be non-bitter, juicy. For hydroponics, 5x5x5 cassettes filled with substrate (peat with perlite 8: 2, hydrogel, mineral wool) are suitable. Seeds should be sown in a well-moistened substrate to a depth of 1.5 cm, 1 seed in each cell. The temperature should be at least 22 degrees.

    To prevent the seeds from being washed, they should be watered by drip or spraying. Before germination, the cassettes are covered with a film, they maintain 90% humidity. After the first leaves appear, the film must be opened and the cassettes must be placed in a place where the temperature is no more than 10 degrees. After the formation of the first leaf, the temperature is raised to 14 grams.

    During the period of root crop formation, the humidity should be 60%, the temperature should be 20 grams. With this method of growing, you need to feed the radish with a nutrient solution:

    • nitrogen (140 mg / l);
    • phosphorus (40 mg / l);
    • potassium (280 mg / l);
    • calcium (80 mg / l);
    • magnesium (45 mg / l).

Possible problems

Problems of growing radishCause of the problem, ways to fix problems
Shooting, fruit is not tied, the fruit is hard, bitter.Irregular watering - you need to change the frequency and amount of watering. Do not disturb the radishes with frequent thinning and loosening.
The plant is stretched, the fruit is small or not tied.
  • shading;
  • thickening of landings;
  • lack of potassium fertilizer.
  1. you need to thin out the planting (3-4 cm between plants);
  2. prune plants that provide shade;
  3. feed with potash and phosphorus fertilizers.
The root crop is cracking.Excess moisture. Changes in watering - in the soil you need to keep constant moisture (do not exceed it and do not allow dryness).

Diseases and pests

Diseases and pestsPrevention and control
Fungal diseasesTreat the seeds in a solution of biological fungicide:
  • Strobe;
  • Tiovit-Jet;
  • Alirin-B;
  • Bayleton.
White rustFungicides of biological origin:
  • Ridomil-Gold;
  • Ditan-M;
  • Folicourt.

In the early stages - folk remedies - a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate, soda ash or baking soda, colloidal sulfur (10-15 g per 10 liters). Carry out processing 3-4 times in 4-5 days.

KeelaEtching in a Cumulus solution will help to avoid contamination. Before planting, treat the bed with a solution of Carbation (40 g per 10 L) or Fundazol (10 g per 10 L).
Powdery mildew
    Spraying with preparations:
  • Speed;
  • Quadris;
  • Raek;
  • Fundazim;
  • Alirin-B;
  • Gamair;
  • Planriz;
  • copper sulfate;
  • bordeaux liquid.
Cruciferous fleaDust with a mixture of sifted ash with crushed dried tobacco leaves, ground pepper, mustard powder. Sprayed with chemicals:
  • Decis;
  • Sherpa;
  • Aktara;
  • Lightning.
SlugsSurround the roots with a "barrier" of:
  • wood ash;
  • crushed chalk;
  • sand;
  • needles;
  • ground nuts or eggshells.

Plant any spicy aromatic greens and other plants with a strong aroma in the aisles, spread fresh leaves of nettle or wormwood.

AphidRemove the ants, spray with foam of household, green potassium or tar soap, wash off after 30 minutes.

You will find all the details about the pests of radish and methods of dealing with them in this publication.

Harvest storage

The shelf life of radishes depends on the variety. Early varieties are stored for a short time, later ones - until spring. Early varieties can be stored in the refrigerator in an unsealed plastic bag, but it is recommended to wash the roots, do not cut the root, and cut the tops, leaving 4-5 cm, or not cut off at all, periodically moisten it.

Late varieties of radish can be stored in the basement in boxes with sand or sawdust... Before this, the vegetable is not washed, the tail is not cut off, the tops are cut off.Root crops and sand, the moisture of which must be maintained throughout the entire storage period, are stacked in layers.

Following the technology of growing radishes, you can grow a wonderful crop of root crops in the country!

Video

You can see more details on how to harvest a super harvest of radish in the video below:


Watch the video: Growing Beets in a Container (May 2021).