Tuberous begonias are more often used to decorate street beds, backyards, and balconies.
Plants are distinguished by long flowering, which begins in early spring and ends in late autumn. Tuberous begonia has several hybrid forms.
In the article we will tell you about the history of the appearance of the species and give a brief description of each variety. And so that tuberous begonia pleases you with its lush flowering, we will tell you about the rules for planting and caring for it at home.
Description and history of the appearance of the species
The ornamental culture has asymmetric leaves of an unusual color. The lower part of the leaf is reddish, brown and dark purple. The stem of the begonia is erect with pronounced nodes or lodging. The inflorescences are several small, medium or large flowers (complex panicle). Flowers are unisexual, monoecious, irregular.
In accordance with the configuration of the bush and the size of the flower, tuberous begonia is:
- Ampelnaya (how to propagate ampelnaya begonia is described here, and how to care for this variety, read here).
Tepals are unequal, brightly colored. The fruit is a triangular box. The history of the origin of tuberous begonia goes back to the middle of the 19th century.
Hybrids created from two varieties of wild-growing begonia from Bolivia have appeared on sale (you can learn more about Bolivian begonias here). They were called Zedena.
Later, this species was used to cross different types of begonias: David, Clark, Veitchi. To obtain modern varieties, at least 7 types of crops were used.
Here you can see a photo of begonias in a flowerbed and in a pot:
Names and brief characteristics of varieties
A variety of varieties are used to decorate garden plots, street beds and lawns:
- Golden ball, Diva, Kelbrutrot. The stem is branching, the leaves are red or green above. The diameter of the flowers is from 4 to 20 cm.
- Camellia Flora with large double flowers. Bushes 30 cm high. Blooms all season.
- Olomouc, Firemeer. The leaves are simple, smooth and shiny; the stem is branched. Terry inflorescences. Shades of white, pink, red. Bloom until frost.
Tuberous begonias of the beloved Chanson variety are suitable for planting in pots. The culture is characterized by small double flowers of orange, red, white and yellow. Begonia Margarita belongs to the ampelous species. The yellow camellia buds are 15 cm in size. Opium White blooms from mid-summer to early fall. It has glossy smooth leaves and an exquisite scent.
Features of planting
Ornamental crops are planted in open ground in early June, when the probability of frost has passed. Choose shaded, well-protected places from the wind. Before planting in the garden, begonias are gradually accustomed to outdoor conditions: they are taken out to the balcony, extending the time they spend in the fresh air.
Important! The soil for begonias should be slightly acidic with good air permeability.
Planting procedure in open ground:
- Make holes for each plant, taking into account the size of the seedling. For large, the distance is 30 cm, for medium - 20 cm, for small - 15 cm.
- Pour a mixture of humus with ash into the holes, water lightly and place the planting material in it.
- Seal the base of the shoot into the ground.
After planting, the land must be mulched with ash and humus. It is necessary to regularly loosen the soil near the plantings in order to saturate it with oxygen. At home, tuberous begonia is planted in January. The deadline is May. If you plan to buy planting material, it is done in March. The tubers will already have buds. The tubers prepared for planting must be firm, free of dents and traces of fungus.
Begonia has a superficial root system, so a wide and shallow pot is chosen.
Any material for the dish: ceramics, plastic, glass. For disembarkation, you can also use a wooden tub. To prevent root decay, a drainage layer is laid on the bottom, charcoal is poured on top.
Begonia prefers loose soil with low acidity. For planting, they buy ready-made soil or prepare it themselves.
Take one piece at a time:
- Leafy land.
The resulting mixture is poured into a pot by two-thirds and proceeds to planting a culture. How to plant a plant in a pot:
- Remove old roots from tubers.
- Disinfect the rhizomes in a manganese solution for half an hour.
- Make indentations in the ground.
- Place the tuber in the ground with the convex side down.
Sprinkle seedlings with loose soil. The kidneys do not fall asleep.
Read about the peculiarities of planting tuberous begonias at home and in the open field in this article.
For harmonious growth at home, plants are placed in a bright, but not bright place. The optimal solution is southwest and east windows.
Attention! Tuberous begonias should be protected from direct sunlight. Leaves can get burned. When the sun is active, the windows are shaded.
- Do not use cold water from the mains and spray plants from a spray bottle.
- Watering regime - two to three times a week.
- Distribute the liquid evenly throughout the pot.
- Irrigation water should be at room temperature. Before using it, it is defended, boiled or filtered for 24 hours. Garden peat is added to soften.
- In winter, moisten once a week with warm water as the soil dries.
During flowering, begonias are watered more often. Excessive flooding is not permissible, otherwise fungus will form. When the earth dries out after moistening, it is loosened to a depth of 1 cm in order to retain moisture inside the container.
There are special fertilizers on sale: Kemira Lux, Good Power, Bona Forte, Mister Color and others. You can also prepare a mixture for feeding yourself.
- Dissolve 1 gram of dry yeast in 1 liter of warm water with the addition of a spoonful of sugar.
- Let it brew for 3 hours.
- Before use, dilute the resulting solution in clean water in a ratio of 1: 5.
You can feed this composition 5 times a year. For fertilization, use dried chopped banana peel. Sprinkle the potting soil with powder once a month and water it abundantly. You can make an irrigation solution by crushing eggshells and adding warm water in a 1: 5 ratio. Insist 15 days, mix the composition every 3 days.
Watering a flower with this tool is carried out no more than 1 time a month. For home begonias, the optimum temperature is 18-23 degrees Celsius. In winter, not lower than plus 15. Pruning is carried out during the period when the plant has bloomed and began to shed its leaves. Dead shoots are cut 1-2 cm from the tuber and the flower is placed in a cool place.
Outdoor begonia care consists of watering, feeding and weeding. Care features:
- Provide regular and abundant watering (especially during dry times), avoiding stagnant water.
- Moisten the plants every three days. Preferably in the morning.
- Pour water around the tuber.
- Fertilize flowering begonias with complex liquid fertilizers. Combine top dressing with irrigation.
- Feed young bushes with potash, phosphorus compounds, additionally add compost.
With the onset of cold weather, begonias are not watered or fed. When the plants are dead, they are prepared for winter: the ground part is removed, the tubers are dug out and dried after 2 weeks. Then they are cleaned and placed in a box with peat or moss in one layer. Put away in a cold place - in the basement or in the refrigerator.
How to properly care for tuberous begonia at home and outdoors is described in our material, and how to care for a plant in winter can be found here.
Diseases and pests
Both a garden and a houseplant are afraid of dampness. The root system begins to rot, a fungus starts. Gray mold attacks the leaves. A plaque forms on the top.
A solution of soap with copper sulfate will help get rid of the disease. Abundant waterlogging provokes powdery mildew. Light gray spots appear on the leaves. To solve the problem, wipe the leaves with soapy water. Garden begonias (especially those growing in a greenhouse) suffer from pests:
- Whiteflies and others.
Special products will help protect plants from harmful insects.
The causes of diseases of the ornamental culture can be improper care, unsuitable soil and waterlogging. To suppress the development of fungal microbes, begonias are sprayed with fungicides: Bordeaux liquid, Topaz, Fundazol.
We offer you to watch a video about the diseases of tuberous begonias:
Tuberous begonias are bred with green cuttings, seeds or tuber division. To get cuttings, uterine tubers are placed in a container with fertile soil and placed in a bright place. When the processes appear, they are broken off and placed in cups or in a container. After the sprouts have taken root, they are planted in a permanent place. Features of growing begonias from seeds at home:
- The seeds are planted in trays in soil with a high peat content (the optimal time for planting is the end of February).
- The planting material is scattered on damp ground. Do not sprinkle on top.
- The containers with seeds are covered with glass or plastic wrap to create conditions favorable for germination.
For propagation of begonia by dividing the tuber, it is cut into several parts. Places of cuts are sprinkled with crushed coal and the planting material is placed in the ground.
Read about the methods of breeding tuberous begonia here.
Video about the reproduction of tuberous begonias:
Tuberous begonia is an unpretentious herb, which is suitable for growing in the garden in the open field and at home in pots. In order for flowering to be abundant, plants need to be provided with proper care and protection from diseases and pests (this article says about why tuberous begonia does not bloom).